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General Summary of Exercise Science

General Summary of Exercise Science

Fist one is about athletes of all ages report using imagery extensively to enhance their sport performance. While it was found that male and female athletes employed imagery to about the same extent, there were some age group differences in the use of imagery.

The second article presents the authors’ opinion on the article. The authors advocate approaches to stroke recovery which include intensive motor problem solving cortical stimulation during rehabilitation.

Third article presents a chronology of three empirical studies that outline the measurement process by which two new subscales were developed and integrated into a revised version of Dunn, Causgrove Dunn, and Syrotuik’s Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. The benefits of utilizing a multi-method multi-analytic approach in the initial stages of the construct validation process are discussed.

The fourth is aobut purpose of this study were to develop a notational system to evaluate passing, dribbling, first touch, and individual defensive skills as they relate to success during women’s soccer games and to develop a statistical model to weigh the importance of each skill on creating scoring opportunities. The notational system developed from this study provides coaches with reliable and objective information to improve practice planning and optimize performance.

The fifth is about this descriptive study examined whether the coverage of African Americans in the feature articles in Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was representative of their participation levels. Nearly half of the articles featured European Americans; about one-third featured African Americans. That African Americans were not featured in articles proportionate to their participation levels in the most popular team sports could perpetuate societal perceptions of the hegemonic domination of European Americans in sports.

広告

No one is higher than Sports

No one is higher than sports

There are many sports in the world now, and we play a lot of sports like baseball, soccer, football, basketball, tennis and so on. They have typical rules and we share it when we play to have a fun. Some sports are played by individual like tennis, while other sports are played by team. Also, some sports are difficult to play or watch, whereas other sports are easy to play or watch. Even there are easy or difficult to play or watch, all sports should be enjoyable and fun. I think sports derive from having a fun for everybody. Especially this time, I focus on baseball in the all sports. Baseball is a 19 century passed time. Baseball is team sport and we should play fair enough. Baseball is different from any other sport in a lot of different ways. For instance, baseball uses runs to keep score, defense puts the ball in play and only defense of the team allowed the touch ball, teams are run by manager, not coach and so on. Objective of baseball is to go home and to be safe. I will investigate some ways in baseball especially MLB today. Also, I will make a clear that no individual is superior to the game, particularly given the state of MLB today.

First, for general, I think everyone can play baseball if they know typical rules and how to play. It is very easy to play baseball because we do not need extra skills. Of course, we need basic skills, that is, at least we need to know how to play. We just need glove, bat, ball, field and people to play. “Indeed, anyone could, for you did not have to be extra big or extra strong or extra fast. Nor was it especially difficult. No arcane skill was required. In fact, to watch or play the only requirement was desire, desire to participate, to be part of the throng, the singing, the shouting, the swearing, the camaraderie, the noise, the sunshine” (A Great and Glorious Game, Giamatti, 54). I really agreed with this statement. I am from Japan. Baseball is very popular in Japan like America. Of course, baseball is more popular in the US than in Japan. Even in Japan, everyone knows how to play baseball and everyone have experience to play baseball in the baseball parks or elementary or junior high school. Also, children, who are both genders like before 10 years old, can play baseball without thinking about playing good or bad, and this is for just having a fun. This is happened because it is very easy to play baseball and no individual is superior to the game.

I am from Japan as I talked above and some Japanese players play in MLB now. Also, they did good job in their teams. Especially, Ichiro in Mariners and Matsui in Yankees at last season (he plays Angels in this season), are good player because Ichiro has record in MLB. He hit 200 through a season in 9 years a raw and this record is still working. Also, he came to MLB from 2001 and at that season, not only did he win the batting title he was number one in stolen bases, and was named Rookie of the Year. In 2004 season, he made new record that he hit 262 a season and he won the batting title second time in MLB. Also, in 2007, he went 3-for-3 and hit the first inside-the-park home run in All-Star Game history and he got MVP. Otherwise, Yankees was world champion for 2009 and Matsui was MVP in World Series for 2009. Most Japanese is smaller than Americans, and American has more muscle and power than Japanese. However, some Japanese is successes in MLB today. I think this means anyone can be possible to play in MLB even not extra big. Everyone could play baseball in MLB if they are good enough even they are not American. Also, Japanese got MVP in World Series for 2009 and I think it means fair enough.

Next, especially MLB, I think it has some different from just having a fun to play baseball because they have more rules, law and so on. If they break rules or law, they should get punishment even they are good players or not. Always, players are under the sports, not sports is under the players. It means it should be fair enough and no individual is superior to the game. “Act of cheating destroys that necessary foundation and thus strike at the essence of a contest. They destroy faith in the game’s integrity and fairness; if participants and spectators alike cannot assume integrity and fairness and proceed from there, the contest cannot in its essence exist” (Giamatti, 73). I really think so because sports need integrity for fairness and I think it is common sense. We can have a fun to watch MLB today because their game is exciting and players are having a fun to play and doing their best and respect each other. It leads us best of all. So if a player would be cheating, it should be punished sever even the player is very good. “Cheating is contrary to the whole purpose of playing to determine a winner fairly and cannot be simply contained; if the game is to flourish and engage public confidence, cheating must be clearly condemned with an eye to expunging it” (Giamatti, 73). For example, Pete Rose was a very good player. But he destroyed faith and the MLB made his punish sever. Even he was a good player he got punishment. I think it means that no individual is superior to the game, particularly given the state of MLB today.

In conclusion, Giamatti wants to say no individual is superior to the game, particularly given the state of MLB today, that is, no one special is in MLB. It means also no one is higher than sports even they are very good players. Sport is there first, and then, some good players are there. Never happen the some good players are first and MLB is second. If sports do not exist, players do not exist, but even players do not exist, sports are there. Therefore, we have to follow rules and law of baseball in MLB and respect each other. It seems like we follow the sports. It does not matter you are a good player or not. We should be integrity and fairness each other so that I think we can be excited and have a fun to play and watch.

Nutrition-Obesity

I choose obesity person. First, I will explain some about obesity. Obesity means excessive amount of body fat relative to body weight. Obese is BMI over 30. Overweight is BMI between 25 to 29.9 kg/m₂. Healthy weight is BMI 18.5 to 24.9. Sever obese is BMI is 35 to 39.9. Morbidly obese is BMI is over 40. The downside of BMI is only factors in height and weight. It does not take body composition into consideration.

The causes of obesity are energy intake > Energy expenditure, fat occurs by increasing the size of existing fat cells and increasing the number of fat cells. It appears that as existing fat cells become full they signal the need for the development of new fat cells. Also, the amount of body fat depends on diet, exercise habits, and heredity.

In the USA, 66% are overweight, 32 % are obese, and 5 % are extremely obese in adults. Each year, about 280,000-325,000 deaths are attributed to obesity making it 2nd to smoking as a preventable cause of death in adults. In children, 14-18 % are above the 95th percentile of BMI for age and sex. The prevalence of children at risk for overweight in Canada and the US ranges from 29 to 35 %. Obese children have an increase risk for chronic disease resulting in increase health care. The obese are increase blood pressure, increase levels of cholesterol and other lipids, increase risk of diabetes, increase risk of CVD, and increase risk of early death.

The factors of obese are psychological, which are guilt, depression, low self esteem, social and economic, which are low income, increase rates of poverty, less likely of marriage, low academic performance and progress, gallstones, osteoarthritis at knees and hips, and cancer.

For the exercise acute and chronic, risks are increase injury, increase risk of increased BP during resistance exercise, heat intolerance, difficulty breathing, movement restriction, pain, muscular, weakness, and balance anxiety. Otherwise, benefits are decrease HR and BP, decrease morbidly, decrease CVD, hypertension, stroke, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, cancers, anxiety, depression, sleep apnea, 5-10 % of weight loss provides significant benefits.

Exercise recommendations are frequency is > 5 days per week/ intensity is moderate to vigorous activity, starting with moderate (40-60 % VO2), and working up to 50-75 %. Time is 30-90 minutes a day. Type is primary mode should be aerobic also resistance training is needed. Long term recommendations are be realistic, lose 5-10 % body weight over a 3 to 6 month period, enhance communication between dietitians, health care professionals, and exercise professionals, target behavior modification. Psychological aspects are stigma, and be considerate and understanding.

Dietary recommendations are calories in less than calories out, 3500 kcals is needed to lose a pound of fat, reduce calories 500 to 1000 a day, which the calories taken should be more nutrient dense because of decreased calories, and lower fat intake to less than 30%.

Also, I designed three day diet for the individual with the obese condition person.

Name is Cody Kopp: weight-220lbs, height-5ft8, activity level-sedentary, age-20, male.

  • Day 1

o   Breakfast-8:00am

  • Water -2 cup
  • Orange-2 each
  • Cereal-1 cup
  • Blueberry Yogurt-1 each
  • Low Fat Milk-1 cup

 

o   Lunch-13:00pm

  • Water-2 cups
  • Rice-1 cup
  • Chicken-200 g
  • Spinach salad no dressing-2 cups

 

o   Dinner-19:00pm

  • Rice-2 cup
  • Vegetable beef soup-1 cup
  • Apple Juice-1 cup
  • Corn salad-1 cup
  • Water-2 cups

o   Before sleep-water 3 cups

 

  • Day 2

o   Breakfast-8:00am

  • Water-2 cups
  • 2% Milk-1 cup
  • Cereal-1 cup
  • Cherry Yogurt-1 each
  • Orange-3 each

o   Lunch-13:00pm

  • Water-2 cups
  • Seaweed-1 gram
  • Caesar Salad-1 each
  • Rice-1 cup

o   Dinner-19:00pm

  • Water-2 cups
  • Rice-2 cups
  • Spinach Salad-1 cup
  • Pink Salmon-50 grams
  • Apple Juice-1 cup
  • Egg-.5 cup

o   Before sleep-water 3 cups

  • Day 3

o   Breakfast-8:00am

  • Water-2 cups
  • Cereal-1 cup
  • 1 % milk-1 cup
  • Banana split yogurt-1 each
  • Orange-3 each

o   Lunch-13:00pm

  • Water-2 cups
  • Pink Salmon-50 grams
  • Rice-2 cups
  • Corn Salad-1 cup

o   Dinner-19:00pm

  • Water-2 cups
  • Chicken & Rice with Cream Souce-1 cup
  • Seafood Salad-1 cup

o   Before sleep-water-2 cups