ramen

Nutrition-Obesity

I choose obesity person. First, I will explain some about obesity. Obesity means excessive amount of body fat relative to body weight. Obese is BMI over 30. Overweight is BMI between 25 to 29.9 kg/m₂. Healthy weight is BMI 18.5 to 24.9. Sever obese is BMI is 35 to 39.9. Morbidly obese is BMI is over 40. The downside of BMI is only factors in height and weight. It does not take body composition into consideration.

The causes of obesity are energy intake > Energy expenditure, fat occurs by increasing the size of existing fat cells and increasing the number of fat cells. It appears that as existing fat cells become full they signal the need for the development of new fat cells. Also, the amount of body fat depends on diet, exercise habits, and heredity.

In the USA, 66% are overweight, 32 % are obese, and 5 % are extremely obese in adults. Each year, about 280,000-325,000 deaths are attributed to obesity making it 2nd to smoking as a preventable cause of death in adults. In children, 14-18 % are above the 95th percentile of BMI for age and sex. The prevalence of children at risk for overweight in Canada and the US ranges from 29 to 35 %. Obese children have an increase risk for chronic disease resulting in increase health care. The obese are increase blood pressure, increase levels of cholesterol and other lipids, increase risk of diabetes, increase risk of CVD, and increase risk of early death.

The factors of obese are psychological, which are guilt, depression, low self esteem, social and economic, which are low income, increase rates of poverty, less likely of marriage, low academic performance and progress, gallstones, osteoarthritis at knees and hips, and cancer.

For the exercise acute and chronic, risks are increase injury, increase risk of increased BP during resistance exercise, heat intolerance, difficulty breathing, movement restriction, pain, muscular, weakness, and balance anxiety. Otherwise, benefits are decrease HR and BP, decrease morbidly, decrease CVD, hypertension, stroke, osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, cancers, anxiety, depression, sleep apnea, 5-10 % of weight loss provides significant benefits.

Exercise recommendations are frequency is > 5 days per week/ intensity is moderate to vigorous activity, starting with moderate (40-60 % VO2), and working up to 50-75 %. Time is 30-90 minutes a day. Type is primary mode should be aerobic also resistance training is needed. Long term recommendations are be realistic, lose 5-10 % body weight over a 3 to 6 month period, enhance communication between dietitians, health care professionals, and exercise professionals, target behavior modification. Psychological aspects are stigma, and be considerate and understanding.

Dietary recommendations are calories in less than calories out, 3500 kcals is needed to lose a pound of fat, reduce calories 500 to 1000 a day, which the calories taken should be more nutrient dense because of decreased calories, and lower fat intake to less than 30%.

Also, I designed three day diet for the individual with the obese condition person.

Name is Cody Kopp: weight-220lbs, height-5ft8, activity level-sedentary, age-20, male.

  • Day 1

o   Breakfast-8:00am

  • Water -2 cup
  • Orange-2 each
  • Cereal-1 cup
  • Blueberry Yogurt-1 each
  • Low Fat Milk-1 cup

 

o   Lunch-13:00pm

  • Water-2 cups
  • Rice-1 cup
  • Chicken-200 g
  • Spinach salad no dressing-2 cups

 

o   Dinner-19:00pm

  • Rice-2 cup
  • Vegetable beef soup-1 cup
  • Apple Juice-1 cup
  • Corn salad-1 cup
  • Water-2 cups

o   Before sleep-water 3 cups

 

  • Day 2

o   Breakfast-8:00am

  • Water-2 cups
  • 2% Milk-1 cup
  • Cereal-1 cup
  • Cherry Yogurt-1 each
  • Orange-3 each

o   Lunch-13:00pm

  • Water-2 cups
  • Seaweed-1 gram
  • Caesar Salad-1 each
  • Rice-1 cup

o   Dinner-19:00pm

  • Water-2 cups
  • Rice-2 cups
  • Spinach Salad-1 cup
  • Pink Salmon-50 grams
  • Apple Juice-1 cup
  • Egg-.5 cup

o   Before sleep-water 3 cups

  • Day 3

o   Breakfast-8:00am

  • Water-2 cups
  • Cereal-1 cup
  • 1 % milk-1 cup
  • Banana split yogurt-1 each
  • Orange-3 each

o   Lunch-13:00pm

  • Water-2 cups
  • Pink Salmon-50 grams
  • Rice-2 cups
  • Corn Salad-1 cup

o   Dinner-19:00pm

  • Water-2 cups
  • Chicken & Rice with Cream Souce-1 cup
  • Seafood Salad-1 cup

o   Before sleep-water-2 cups

 

 

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